Titus Steelwork’s Manganese Steel is a work-hardening steel commonly referred to as "Austentic 11- 14% Manganese". The steel contains 11-14% manganese and a minimum of 1% carbon. It is non-magnetic.
Work hardening refers to the fact that the steel becomes harder and harder the more it is impacted or compressed.
The steel has an original hardness of 220-240 BHN. With continued impact and/or compression it can harden up to 550 BHN.
It should be noted that only the outer skin surface hardens. The outer layer remains highly ductile and tough. As the surface wears, it continually renews itself becoming harder and harder.
Other advantages of the manganese steel include:
- Low coefficient of friction in metal-to-metal applications.
- Non-magnetic properties in electrical transformer assemblies and for industrial lifting magnets.
|C (%)||Mn (%)||Si (%)||S (%)||P (%)|
|ASTM A128 Gr B2||1.05//1.2||11.5/14||< 1.0||≤ 0.070|
|Titus Steelworks Manganese||1.05//1.2 |
|≤ 0.010 |
|≤ 0.030 |
|Y.S||UTS||Elongation||Charpy V||Hardness (HB)|
|≥ 350 MPa |
≥ 51 KSI
|≥ 800 MPa |
≥ 116 KSI
|EI (5d)% |
|KCVL ≥ 80 J/cm2 at + 20°C |
KCVL ≥ 60 ft/lbs at 68°F
Typical values obtained are:
|Y.S||UTS||Elongation||Charpy V||Hardness (HB)|
|≈ 380 MPa |
≈ 55 KSI
|≈ 940 MPa |
≈ 136 KSI
|EI (5d)% |
|KCVL ≈ 140 J/cm2 at + 20°C |
KCVL ≈ 100 ft/lbs at 68°F
|Physical Properties (Metric)||Physical Properties (U.S.)|
|Thermal Conductivity||W/m. °C |
|Thermal Coefficient Expansion 0 to 600°C |
(32 to 1112°F)
|10-5 . °C-1||21.5||10-6 . °F-1||11.9|
|Specific Heat||J/kg. °C |
|cal/g. °C |
|Specific Gravity (Density)||kg/m3 |
|Electrical Resistivity||µΩ.cm||70 to 80||µΩ.cm||70 to 80|
Magnetic permeability: about 1.002
Note: Physical characteristics at +20°C (+68°F) accept the thermal coefficient of expansion.
Normal processing can be performed on Titus Steelworks’ Manganese plates; however, due to its particular properties (aptitude to work-hardening, high coefficient of expansion, low thermal conductivity), specific precautions have to be taken, especially in machining and welding.
Thermal cutting with plasma or laser is recommended. When possible, we advise selection of the process which produces cuts of the greatest precision.
Standard machining can be performed as long as interpass depth is deeper than the work hardness zone of the preceding pass. Therefore, sufficiently powerful equipment, without excessive play, is required.
- Drilling should be executed with a super-carburized Cobalt high-speed steel bit, type HESSCO (e.g. AISI grade M42).
- reinforced shape, long twist
- point angle at 130°
- low cut speed 2 to 3m/min (80 to 120"/min)
- high feed, for example: 0.08mm/rev to 0.15mm/rev (0.003"/rev. up to 0.0006"/rev.) for diameter bits from 1Oto 20mm (0.40 to 0.80")
- Dry drilling leads to good results. The depth of the hole to be drilled, should not exceed 3 times the bit diameter.
- Drilling should be performed continuously, without any stop.
- Other possible solutions: drilling with bits at 3 lips with carbide-tipped or drilling with bits for concrete when small series or hot drilling are considered.
- Super-carburized Cobalt milling tools, type HSSCO, are recommended, (e.g. AISI grade M42). Tools with carbide tip (e.g. ISO type P25) can also be used.
- The recommended parameters are:
- cut-speed: 50m/min (160ft/min)
- feed: 0.2mm/tooth for example (0.08"/tooth)
- Punching can be achieved with sufficiently powerful equipment. The process should be as regular as possible.
Forming with Titus Steelworks’ Manganese can be performed at room temperature. Pre-heating beyond 500°F is not recommended. Hardened edges resulting from previous mechanical shearing should be ground before forming. Also, a light beveling of edges should be made.
The minimum temperature for hot forming must be greater than 850°C (1560°F). The pieces must be water quenched immediately. If the temperature is lower than 850°C (1560°F), it is necessary to re-heat at a temperature higher then 980°C (1800°F) before quenching..
Titus Steelworks’ Manganese should be welded with some precautions due to its unique properties. Because of its high coefficient of expansion and low thermal conductivity, the steel is sensitive to thermal distortions and local excessive heating. Also, long stages at temperatures higher than 300°C (572°F) induce carbide precipitation, which decreases toughness and non-magnetism property.
All standard welding procedures can be used.
Welding is performed with low heat input – E < 20kJ/cm, interpass temperature limited to about 100°C (210°F) – with water cooling between each pass if necessary. Distortions should be hammered between passes if necessary.
Note: Never pre-heat.
There are heterogeneous welds (which is a main practice) or homogeneous welds (work-harden able deposits).
- Heterogeneous welds
For manual arc welding:
- TITUS MANGANESE - XL weld rod
- Weld deposit design 18 Cr 8 Ni 6 Mn per AWS A 5.4.E 307
- Weld deposit design 20 Cr 10 Ni 3 Mo per AWS A 5.4.E 308 Mo
- Homogeneous welds
For manual arc welding, typical deposits are 13Mn 3 Ni Mo-Class 1 5.13 E Fe Mn per AWS.
For semi-automatic welding, with or without protective gas, use flux-cored wire of similar composition.
Examples of products:
- Coated electrode for manual welding: TITUS MANGANESE – XL
- Flux-cored wire for semi-automatic welding: TITUS MANGANESE - XL
Note: DO NOT use low hydrogen rod. You should use stainless steel (300 series) or Manganese steel. But it is best to check with your weld supplier.
DO NOT PRE-HEAT manganese steel.
Remove rust, grease and other foreign matter. Organic matter can breakdown in the heat of the arc and cause porosity.
Reduce energy input and heat built-up. Temperatures adjacent to the weld should never exceed S00°F one minute after the bead is deposited (use a weld-temperature stick to assist control of heat input).
Factors that will reduce energy input:
- Maintain a short arc, (a long arc increases voltage)
- Minimize puddling, (puddling slows travel speed)
- Skip weld where possible
DO NOT POST-HEAT manganese steel.
Manganese Steel Applications
Titus Steelwork’s Manganese steel is an outstanding steel for severe wear conditions, caused by impact abrasion. Some examples include:
- Quarries, Construction - Earth Moving:
- crusher jaw
- stone chute
- chain guide plate
- spreader plate
- shovel bucket
- Mines, Coal Mines:
- bucket blade of loader (underground mining)
- parts of chain conveyor
- various armoring elements
- Cement Plants:
- chain extractor
- Iron Industry, Foundry:
- guide and shift plates
- scrap container liners
- shot-blast units
- pedestal liners
- wear liners
- Concrete/Brick Factories:
- core and diving mould walls
- grinding mill scraper
- mixer paddle
- shake-out table
- Scrap/Recover Plants:
- wheel disk
- striker and hammer mill
- Automotive Industries:
- shot-blasting equipment